As discussed above and in dictionary definitions, the term “map” is used well beyond geographic representations (e.g., Merriam-Webster definition). Even assuming geographical context, definitions encompass a wide range of forms of representation. The International Cartographic Association has developed the following definition of maps: “A map is a symbolized image of geographical reality representing selected features or features resulting from the creative effort of executing the author`s decisions, and is designed to be used when spatial relationships are of paramount importance.” This definition still allows for great diversity. The definition is intentionally broad and includes, for example, tactile maps for the visually impaired, as shown in Figure 1.4 below. A simple definition is that a map is a representation of a place. This has two important implications that are sometimes overlooked: maps created on the basis of insufficient data, especially if their purpose is to interpret observed facts or phenomena, may be hypothetical in nature and significance (in whole or in part). One example is the mapping of the different climatic regions of the world. The accumulation of new data makes it possible to examine, compare and refine previously created hypothetical maps. Eratosthenes Eratosthenes was an astronomer, librarian, mathematician and poet. In his spare time, he also invented the discipline of geography. Based on the position of the sun, Eratosthenes was able to calculate the circumference of the earth without leaving Egypt, his homeland. He used the length of a stadium as a unit of distance. Since in the world of ancient Greece there were stadiums of two different sizes, and we do not know which stage Eratosthenes used, we cannot know exactly what he calculated for the circumference of the earth.
If it were to use the largest Greek stadium, its perimeter would be about 16% larger than Earth. If he were to use the so-called “Egyptian stadium”, smaller, his calculation would be even larger, but only by 1%. Just as satellite remote sensing (digital data), Web 2.0 (e.g., open road maps) and the low-cost accessibility of GIS (geographic information software) have democratized the creation, sharing and availability of maps, travel mapping software offers the same to service-oriented organizations. The cracking of oligopolies in the creation of maps and the merging of map producers and consumers revolutionized the field of geography. We see the same with service providers listening to their customers` voices, proactively involving them in creating new services, and using software to set up map and data repositories. Many maps are static, fixed on paper or other durable media, while others are dynamic or interactive. Although maps are most often used to represent geography, they can represent any real or fictional space, regardless of context or scale, such as brain mapping, DNA mapping, or topological mapping of the computer network. The space to be mapped can be two-dimensional, such as the surface of the Earth, three-dimensional, such as the interior of the Earth, or more abstract spaces of each dimension, such as those created when modeling phenomena with many independent variables. A map represents an image of the Earth`s surface that follows a specific objective and/or objective (e.g. topographical, geological). One of the biggest challenges in creating maps is that the complexity of the Earth`s surface cannot be accurately represented on a map.
The maps are therefore only an approximation of reality. In geography, a distinction is mainly made between thematic and topographic maps. The former usually focus on a few selected pieces of information, such as population density or GDP per capita, while the latter manage to represent a 3D environment in 2D, for example by adding isohypses (contour line). These topographic maps typically require a reference point, such as sea level, for the elevation of certain areas on the specified map. To involve the elements of precise relationships and a formal method of projecting the spherical subject onto a cartographic plane, other qualifications could be applied to the definition. The long and somewhat abstract statements that result from attempting to formulate precise definitions of maps and diagrams are more confusing than clarifying. The words map, graphic and flat are used somewhat interchangeably. However, the connotations of use are distinctive: charts for navigational purposes (nautical and aeronautical), flat (in the sense of property boundaries) for fixed references and ownership, and charts for general references. While there is a consensus that maps are extremely effective forms of communication, there are many definitions of what maps actually are, and these definitions vary widely. To understand why, let`s do a simple exercise.
Look at the images in Figure 1.5 below and decide which ones are cards. Ideally, the same is true for any organization. Journey mapping helps them map familiar things, discover knowledge gaps, and plan further research. Cartography is linked to geography in its engagement with the broader aspects of the Earth and its life. In the past, mapping efforts were artistic rather than scientific and factual. As man explored and recorded his surroundings, the quality of his maps and maps improved. These lines by Jonathan Swift were inspired by early maps: thematic maps emphasize the spatial model of geographic attributes, or statistics about places and relationships between places. For example, while a reference map can show the location of cities, a thematic map can also show the population of those cities. A reference map can show the location of banks, while a thematic map shows the average income in an area. This is the difference between location attribution and map data. World maps or large areas are often “political” or “physical”. The most important purpose of the political map is to show territorial boundaries; The purpose of physics is to show the characteristics of geography such as mountains, soil type or land use, including infrastructure such as roads, railways and buildings.
Topographic maps show heights and reliefs with contour lines or shades. Geological maps show not only the physical surface, but also the properties of the underlying rock, fault lines, and underground structures. A map is a symbolic representation of the selected features of a place, usually drawn on a flat surface. The maps present information about the world in a simple and visual way. They teach about the world by showing the sizes and shapes of countries, the places of characteristics and the distances between places. Maps can show distributions of things across the Earth, such as settlement patterns. You can see the exact location of houses and streets in a neighborhood. Cartographers, called cartographers, create maps for different purposes. Vacationers use road maps to plan the itineraries of their trips. Meteorologists – scientists who study the weather – use weather maps to make forecasts. City planners decide where hospitals and parks will be placed using maps showing the features of the land and how the land is currently used. Common features of maps include scale, symbols, and grids.
ScaleAll cards are scale models of reality. The scale of a map indicates the relationship between the distances on the map and the actual distances on Earth. This relationship can be expressed through a graphic scale, a verbal scale or a representative break. The most common type of graphic scaling is like a rule.